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Banking > Advanced Banking


Functioning of a Bank

Functioning of a Bank is among the more complicated of corporate operations. Since Banking involves dealing directly with money, governments in most countries regulate this sector rather stringently. In India, the regulation traditionally has been very strict and in the opinion of certain quarters, responsible for the present condition of banks, where NPAs are of a very high order. The process of financial reforms, which started in 1991 has cleared the cobwebs somewhat but a lot remains to be done. The multiplicity of policy and regulations that a Bank has to work with, makes its operations even more complicated, sometimes bordering on illogical. This section, which is also intended for banking professional, attempts to give an overview of the functions in as simple manner as possible.

Banking Regulation Act of India, 1949 defines Banking as "accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawable by cheques, draft, order or otherwise."

Deriving from this definition and viewed solely from the point of view of the customers, Banks essentially perform the following functions :

  1. Accepting Deposits from public/others (Deposits)

  2. Lending money to public (Loans)

  3. Transferring money from one place to another (Remittances)

  4. Acting as trustees

  5. Keeping valuables in safe custody

  6. Government business

But do these functions constitute banking? The answer must be a no. There are so many intricacies involved in the activities that a bank performs today, that the above list must sound very simple to a seasoned banker. Please click on the activity to see what a Bank has to do to give the above services to its customers. These activities can also be described as back office banking.

Banks are organised in a linear structure to performed these activities at the base of which lies a Branch. The corporate office of a bank is normally called Head Office.

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